The Feynman diagram for the beta-minus decay of a neutron (n) into a proton (p) , due to the weak force, i.e., via an intermediate heavy W− boson. One of down quarks (d) in the neutron decays into an up quark (u) to make a proton, emitting an electron and an electron anti-neutrino. By Joel Holdsworth (Joelholdsworth) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
A friend of mine on Twitter, Aaron (a pseudonym), is an overseas, 16-year old boy, who seriously admires Albert Einstein and wants to become a physicist. He continually writes me (Ted, also a pseudonym) questions about the theory of relativity and related topics, and I am sending answers. In this series of blog posts, those questions and answers are reproduced with modifications. I am not an expert in the fields of physics related to relativity. So, my answers might contain errors. If you find any error, please do not hesitate to write a comment for the benefit, not only of the boy and me, but also of other readers.
Ted: There are four known fundamental interactions in nature to cause fundamental forces in the universe: gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear interactions. Among these interactions, the mediators of three interactions, i.e., the gluon for the strong interaction, the photon for electromagnetic interaction and the graviton for the gravitational interaction, have (or assumed to have) zero mass. Therefore, the forces based on these interactions are transmitted by the speed of light. The remaining one interaction, weak interaction, is mediated by the heavy W and Z bosons and cannot be transmitted by the speed of light. However, the effective range of the weak force is quite short (around 10−17–10−16; Ref. 1), so that we can regard that the weak force is transmitted almost instantaneously for it actually to work.
- J. Christman. The Weak Interaction, Physnet (Michigan State University, 2001) p. 2.