Albert Einstein in 1931 by Doris Ulmann [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
A friend of mine on Twitter, Aaron (a pseudonym), is an overseas, 16-year old boy, who seriously admires Albert Einstein and wants to become a physicist. He continually writes me (Ted, also a pseudonym) questions about the theory of relativity and related topics, and I am sending answers. In this series of blog posts, those questions and answers are reproduced with modifications. I am not an expert in the fields of physics related to relativity. So, my answers might contain errors. If you find any error, please do not hesitate to write a comment for the benefit, not only of the boy and me, but also of other readers.
Ted: It is gratifying that you think so deeply as to want to know the reason for the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. However, no one knows the reason. It was initially Albert Einstein's assumption in developing the special theory of relativity. Then, many experiments have confirmed the correctness of the theory, and the assumption has been accepted as one of true facts. So, presently there is no reason or cause to which physicists attribute the constancy of the speed of light.
By the way, I have learned, on Twitter this morning, the Reuters news that neutrinos were found to break the speed of light by a group of physicists working on an experiment dubbed OPERA, which was run jointly by the CERN particle research center and the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. If this experiment be confirmed to be correct, it will make an immense challenge to theoretical physicists.
Aaron: The news is extremely serious. The title of the report says, "Finding could overturn laws of physics." But it would not invalidate the theory of relativity, right?
Ted: Yes, it would do so, to some extent. Namely, if the neutrino experiment were correct, it would require a correction of the theory of relativity. However, many experiments and observations have been consistent with that theory. Further, neutrinos produced by the explosion of the 1987 supernova arrived at the earth not earlier than light from the same source. So, I highly doubt the correctness of the experiment just reported.
(Originally written on September 23 and 24, 2011, except for "Note" below)
Note about "faster-than-light neutrino" measurements:
In March 2012, the OPERA team confirmed that the measurements first announced in September 2011 were skewed by a combination of a faulty cable and flawed timing in the experiment’s master clock (Ref. 1). The group repeated its measurement and have reported the final results that are consistent with the special theory of relativity (Ref. 2; see also Ref. 3 for the whole story about the measurement of the neutrino speed).
I was not surprised at reading the news of possibly wrong measurements because I had once encountered a paper that reported the results of erroneous measurements in the prestigious journal Physical Review (the author's name was Dressel). The results were inconsistent not only with many previous authors' but also with my own that had just been obtained. Thus, I was able timely to publish my results in the same journal, pointing out possible causes of errors in Dressel's measurements. (You can see the abstract of my paper here.) Later, Dressel found the real cause of errors by himself. Some or many scientists believe "it is right to release an 'uncomfortable' result for scrutiny and then seek an instrumental or methodological effect that might explain it," as the OPERA spokesman Antonio Ereditato is reported to have said (Ref. 1).
- E. S. Reich, "Embattled neutrino project leaders step down," Nature (April 2012).
- The OPERA Collaboration, "Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam using the 2012 dedicated data," arXiv:1212.1276 [hep-ex] (December 2012).
- "Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (15 December 2012 at 14:07).